- Pet Caretaking and Risk of Cognitive Impairment and Dementia in Older U.S. Adults Participating in a Nationwide Longitudinal Probability Cohort Study
- Measuring the Impact of a Mutually Reinforcing Relationship Between Pet Owners and Their Pets
- Pilot Study of the Effects of Service Dogs on Mental Health and Wellness in War Veterans with PTSD and/or TBI
- Companion Animals, Social Engagement, and Psychological Well-Being in Mid and Later Adulthood
- Biobehavioral Effects of Therapy Dog Visitation in Elderly Intensive Care Unit Patients: A Pilot and Feasibility Study
- Integration of AAI and Applied Behavior Analysis to Improve Academic Performance in Children with Intellectual and/or Developmental Disability
- Shelter Cat Adoption in Families of Children with Autism: Impact on Children’s Social Skills and Anxiety as Well as Cat Stress
- Physiological Wellness Effects of Animal-Assisted Activities in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in a Specialized Psychiatric Hospital Program
- Interactions with Animals to Reduce Children’s Stress
- Pets in the Classroom: What are the Social, Behavioral, and Academic Effects of Classroom Pets for Children, 8-10 Years?
- The Canines and Childhood Cancer Study: Examining Behaviors and Stress in Therapy Dogs
- Listening EARS: How Does Reading to Rabbits Affect the Reading Skills of Third Grade Students?
- Researching Equine-Facilitated Group Psychotherapy (EFGP) for Trauma Survivors: Horses and Humans in Therapeutic Relationships
- Asking Patients About Pets Enhances Patient Communication and Care
- Randomized Controlled Theory-Based, E-Mail Mediated Walking Intervention: Differences Between Dog Owners and Non-Dog Owners
- Long Term Effects Of Pet Dogs On Families With Children With Autism
- Animal-Assisted Social Skills Training for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
- Investigating Possible Mechanism of Human-Animal Bond in Companion Dogs Using Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopic (fNIRS) Brain Imaging
- Allostatic Load Scoring for Understanding Stressors and Predicting Success in Guide Dogs: A Pilot Study
- Wellbeing at the Nexus of Animal Abuse and Intimate Partner Violence: A Study of Canadian Adults
- Impact of Service Dogs on the Psychosocial Well-beingof Children with ASD, their Parents and their Families
- Enhancing the health of unhoused youth: A multi-perspective approach for shifting the housing system to protect unhoused young people’s relationships with pets
- The Minority Pet-Owner Health Project (MPOH): Investigating effects of demographic-disparities, racism, and the human-animal bond on Minority Health
- A Pilot Study to Examine the Impact of a Therapy Dog Intervention on Loneliness and Related Health Outcomes in Patients with Mental Illness
- Sharing is caring: can pets protect their owners against antibiotic-associated disruption of the gut microbiome?
- The Impact of Animals in Relationships with Intimate Partner Violence: Measuring Cruelty and Coercion
- The role of human-animal interaction in coping with minority stress: A longitudinal study of sexual and gender minority emerging adults
- Do Animals Modulate Social Attention and Functioning in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)?
- How does 8 weeks of equine-assisted therapy affect older adults diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease?
- Canine-assisted anxiety reduction in pediatric emergency care (CANINE III)
- Exploring the Impacts of Animal-Assisted Interventions on Positive Youth Development for Adolescents in Residential Treatment
- Uncovering Pet Ownership Benefits, Challenges, and Resources in an Aging Society: Promoting Healthy Aging in Healthcare and Community Environments
- The Influence of Pet Ownership on Gut Microbiota Composition and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Among 50 to 85-Year Old United States Adults
- Diamond Dogs: A Pilot Dog-Walking Trial with Overweight College Students and Dog Shelters in the Inner-City
- Implementation of Canine-Assisted Forensic Interviews with Children
- Direct Experimental Assessment of Therapy Dog Handlers on Child and Dog Behavior During AAI
- Evaluating the Effects of Service Dogs on Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Their Caregivers
- Human-Animal Interaction and Trajectories of Youth Development in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study
- Pilot Study of the Effects of Animal-Assisted Interactions (AAI) on Quality of Life in Children with Life-Threatening Conditions and their Parents
- Joint Physical and Social Well-being for Adolescents and their Family Dog
- Increasing Dog-walking in the Community: What is the Potential of Wearable Dog Trackers? The PAWalks Trial
- Healthy Aging: Human Companionship Through Fostering Felines
- The Health and Developmental Benefits of Companion Animals for Young Children: Advancing the Evidence Base
- Impact of Animal Assisted Therapy on Quality, Completeness, and Patient and Parental Satisfaction in Children Undergoing Clinical Echocardiography
- The Effect of Animal-Assisted Intervention on Preoperative Anxiety and Dose of Sedation in Children
The Pet Effect
Did you know that pets can reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression in those with PTSD?
Learn more about The Pet Effect here.
The overall research goal was to collect all empirical, published evidence of Animal-Assisted Intervention (AAI) for individuals who have experienced trauma, including those with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
The following inclusion criteria were used to select relevant articles for review: (a) publication in English in a peer-reviewed journal or thesis, (b) collection of original, empirical data on outcomes from AAI, which was defined as any intervention that intentionally incorporated a live animal, and (c) reporting of summative results for participants who have experienced trauma, including PTSD.
The first systematic review of research on animal-assisted intervention (AAI) for victims of trauma, this study found preliminary evidence that “animals may provide unique elements to address several PTSD symptoms.” Specifically, “people with PTSD often experience emotional numbing, yet the presence of an animal has been reported to elicit positive emotions and warmth. Animals have also been demonstrated as social facilitators that can connect people and reduce loneliness, which may assist individuals with PTSD break out of isolation and connect to the humans around them.”
- Human Animal Bond Research Institute
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